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Researchers in China grafted the heads of smaller rats onto the necks of larger rats.

The scientists successfully avoided any brain-damaging blood loss, accomplishing the goal of the study published in 'CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics.'

Blood vessels of the donor rat's head were attached to a third rat's blood vessels which kept blood flowing continuously to the donor rat's brain.

No damaging was detected on EEGs monitoring the donor rat's brain activity throughout the transplanting procedure. vice.com
The fact that so many computer scientists are ignorant or disdainful of non-technical approaches is worrisome. Here are some steps forward.

Universities should start with broader training for computer science students. Most top undergraduate programs in computer science, do not require students to take a course on ethical and social issues in computer science!

Organizations should explore the social and ethical issues their products create: Google and Microsoft deserve credit for researching algorithmic discrimination, and Facebook for investigating echo chambers.

Companies should hire the people harmed or excluded by their products: whose faces their computer vision systems don’t recognize. Hire non-computer-scientists and have them challenge the worldviews of the workforce. wired.com
More than 120 million years ago, a menagerie of dinosaurs small and large stomped their way across what’s now northwestern Australia.

That ancient ecosystem left remnants scrawled on tidal flats and swampy stretches of mud, which in time turned to stone. The coastlines of northwestern Australia’s Dampier Peninsula now bear thousands of dinosaur tracks. One 16-mile stretch of the coast, including a site called Walmadany, carries the tracks of 21 different types of dinosaur—making it the most diverse tract of dinosaur footprints on Earth. Among them are the biggest dinosaur tracks ever studied in detail.

"It is extremely significant, forming the primary record of non-avian dinosaurs in the western half of the continent and providing the only glimpse of Australia's dinosaur fauna during the first half of the Early Cretaceous Period," University of Queensland paleontologist Steven Salisbury said in a statement. "It's such a magical place—Australia's own Jurassic Park, in a spectacular wilderness setting."

Walmadany’s footprints are etched into what’s known as the Broome Sandstone, a rock formation between 127 and 140 million years old that makes up part of the Dampier Peninsula. Sailsbury says that the tracks include the only confirmed evidence of Australian stegosaurs, as well as some of the largest dinosaur tracks ever recorded: footprints of a long-necked sauropod that are nearly six feet long each. nationalgeographic.com
Paleontologists have dug up a 130,000-year-old mastodon skeleton that looks like it was smashed apart by humans. But they found it in America, where people were not supposed to have arrived for another 100,000 years. 

The researchers say they think early humans must have come to America much, much earlier than anyone ever thought. They suggest that other scientists start looking for evidence of people in places they never bothered looking before. 

If the conclusions are confirmed, they will turn North American archaeology upside down. 

"I know people will be skeptical of this because it is so surprising and I was skeptical when I first looked at the material itself. But it's definitely an archaeological site," said Steven Holen of the Center for American Paleolithic Research in South Dakota. 

The site includes a skeleton that looks like it was taken apart and broken with stone tools, which are left in place alongside the bones they smashed. One tusk appears to have been stuck upright into the ground. nbcnews.com
Scientists from Lomonosov Moscow State University released the study results of the unique ultra-slow pulsar XB091D. This neutron star is alleged to have captured a companion only a million years ago, and ever since, has been slowly gaining back its rapid rotation. The young pulsar is in one of the oldest globular star clusters in the Andromeda galaxy, where the cluster may once have been a dwarf galaxy.

For the pulsar to restore its youth and accelerate its rotation, it can pair with an ordinary star. After teaming up to form a binary system, the neutron star starts to pull matter from the star, creating a hot accretion disk around itself. For about 100,000 years, the old pulsar, which has already slowed to one revolution every few seconds, can once again spin thousands of times faster.

This extraordinary event was observed by a team of astrophysicists from the Lomonosov Moscow State University, together with colleagues from Italy and France. The X-ray pulsar known as XB091D was discovered at the initial stages of its transformation and ends up being the slowest rotating of all globular cluster pulsars currently. The neutron star completes one revolution in 1.2 seconds over 10 times slower than the previous record holder. According to scientists, the acceleration of the pulsar began less than 1 million years ago. techiwire.com
Representatives of the Chinese and European space agencies have discussed collaborating on a moonbase and other possible joint endeavours, according to spokespeople and media reports.

The work was first revealed by Tian Yulong, the secretary general of China’s space agency, who told Chinese state media about the talks. Pal Hvistendahl, a spokesperson for the European Space Agency, confirmed the discussions.

“The Chinese have a very ambitious moon programme already in place,” Mr Hvistendahl said. “Space has changed since the space race of the Sixties. We recognise that to explore space for peaceful purposes, we do international cooperation.”

Johann-Dietrich Wörner, the director general of the 22-member ESA, has described its proposed “Moon Village” as a potential international launching pad for future missions to Mars and a chance to develop space tourism or even lunar mining. 

China arrived relatively late to space travel but has ramped up its programme since its first manned spaceflight in 2003, more than 42 years after a Soviet cosmonaut became the first to reach orbit.  independent.co.uk